Schools: Annotated Bibliography
Natriello, McDill, and Pallas
Gary Natriello, Edward L. McDill, and Aaron L. Pallas. Schooling
Disadvantaged Children: Racing Against Catastrophe. New York: Teachers
College Press, 1990.
Elementary school compensatory education programs of several types.
Secondary school programs aimed at improving academic success,
motivating students to attend and exert effort, and providing supportive
conditions outside school.
Schools enrolling educationally disadvantaged students.
Source of Information
Review of research on educational practices and evaluation studies of
specific approaches and programs.
Findings and Conclusions
Educationally disadvantaged students benefit from attending kindergarten
and, particularly, whole-day programs. Effective approaches in the
elementary grades offer academically focused, teacher-directed activities
that teach students a hierarchy of skills, evaluate their progress frequently,
and adjust instruction to their individual needs. Examples include the
DISTAR program for teaching mathematics, reading, and language;
cooperative learning approaches; structured peer-tutoring programs; and
some computer-assisted instruction programs. Many of the more powerful
approaches are aimed at all students, not just the lowest achievers, and
hence have fallen outside the scope of traditional Chapter 1 programs.
Effective high school programs provide disadvantaged students with
(1) opportunities for academic success through remedial assistance,
rewards for growth, and classroom exercises that draw on a variety of
abilities; (2) positive social relationships with staff and peers and a sense
of membership in and ownership of the school; (3) a sense of the
relevance of school to their future lives; and (4) strategies to mitigate the
unfavorable effects of external conditions on their participation and
performance in school. The first of these is critically important, given that
lack of academic success is one of the strongest predictors of dropping
Reviews the strengths and limitations of Chapter 1, Upward Bound, and
Job Corps and many other specific approaches.
GAO/PEMD-95-28 Schools and Workplaces